Mosquitoes are bothersome, swarming, hitting insects, and some are carriers of malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, filariasis, and encephalomyelitis. Mosquitoes can be distinguished from other Diptera by their delicate, small look. Females have elongated mouth parts and a different proboscis well suited for piercing and sucking blood. Scales are present along the wing veins and along the lower wing margins.
The sexes can be distinguished by the antennae: in females they are long and slim with a few short hairs; in the male they are feathery and plumose. Close examination shows the antennae to be composed of 14 to 15 segments. The venation of the wings is also characteristic for mosquitoes and is useful in species identification. Mosquitoes are especially attracted to man and animals, especially to bright light and dark-colored clothing. The females are the blood suckers and can’t produce fertile eggs without ingesting blood. It is postulated that the blood supplies the serotonin and epinephrine necessary for creation of gonadotropic hormone from the mosquito, required for ovulation. These then metamorphose into adults.
1. Mechanical methods
Wire screens for windows and doors. Mosquito nets. Animal barrier: Putting farm animals between the breeding places and human habitations would disagree mosquitoes (particularly zoophilic) from biting man.
Changing the environment so as to become unsuitable for the mosquitoe eg, drainage or filling of the breeding area. Changing of water level, water present, PH.
3. Biological methods
Introduction of a natural enemy (predator): a fish (Gambusia affinis) feed on larvae and pupae; release of sterilized males (X-ray or chemical agents) which compete with males in character, mating with females. And resulting in reduction of the forth coming generation.
4. Chemical methods (insecticides)
Used those against adults (adulticides). Insecticides act on contact being absorbed through the cuticle (contact poison). These are applied as space spray with an insecticide, which causes immediate knockdown of mosquitoes eg. pyrethrum (active ingredient in Flit), but it has no residual action. And also by remaining spray of resting places of adults (walls0 with an insecticide of extended action (residual insecticide) eg, hydrocarbons like DDT and Gammaxane, Organophosphorous compounds as Malathion and Diphterex, carbamates as sevin. The dvelopment of immunity is a drawback of insecticides
Specific agents can be implemented against aquatic stages. These agents are applied to water surfaces. Anopheline larvae are affected more than culicines, being surface feeders. Pupae aren’t affected, as they don’t feed. Respiratory poison: employing non-volatile oils suffocates larvae and pupae by blocking the respiratory spiracles. Residual insecticides are sprayed on water mixed with oil or dust. They exert their effect by ingestion and contact. Practically no single method alone is effective in control. The joint use of two or more methods (integrated control) would provide a higher and more efficient level of abatement. Insects escaped on method, are killed by other.